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Web3 Fundamentals and NEAR

Practice Part - I

These contents have been prepared using online resources. Patika.dev’s own contents are currently under preparation.

Preparation for NCD I

This note will walk you through a starter project that you may use in NCD I and will give you basic knowledge of its structure, internal work and problems you may encounter.

Goals


Estimates for Time to Complete

  • Fastest time: 5 minutes (if you already know how to do this)
  • Most likely time: 12 minutes
  • Time to quit: 20 minutes (we can help you with some hints in this case)

Requirements

In order to have little to no troubles and awaitings during this course, you should have installed:

  • npm Node.JS package manager
  • git version control
  • yarn (npm install -g [email protected])
  • near-cli

Also, you have to use your testnet account. If you don’t have one - create.

First things first

To start with, let’s clone repository we’ll be working with. You can do it through GitHub client or using git clone https://github.com/Learn-NEAR/starter--near-sdk-as command. Open project folder in terminal and run yarn. yarn is a package manager that allows to download and solve project’s dependencies - pieces of code that are required for project to work. You will see such output:

PS C:\Github\starter--near-sdk-as> yarn 
yarn install v1.22.15
[1/4] Resolving packages...
[2/4] Fetching packages...
[3/4] Linking dependencies...
[4/4] Building fresh packages...
Done in 2.16s.

Let’s have a closer look at the content of our project.

Overview

package.json

{
  "name": "starter--near-sdk-as",
  "version": "0.0.1",
  "description": "Start with a basic project",
  "scripts": {
    "dev": "watch -d -n 1 'clear && yarn test'",
    "test": "yarn asp -f unit.spec",
    "clean": "rm -rf ./build && rm -rf ./neardev",
    "build": "asb --target debug",
    "build:release": "asb",
    "asp": "asp --verbose --nologo"
  },
  "keywords": [],
  "author": "[email protected]",
  "license": "ISC",
  "devDependencies": {
    "near-sdk-as": "^3.1.0"
  }
}

What we see here is a configuration file for our project containing the name of project, version etc. What we are interested in are scripts. Those are aliases for shell commands with specific options. For example, clean is a short name for a command that deletes folders build and neardev, and build:release executes AssemblyScript asb (build) command.

asconfig.json

{
  "workspaces": [
    "src/simple",
    "src/singleton"
  ]
}

This file is a collection of folders with our contracts in them. When we execute build:release command, we compile contracts from each workspace into the output folder. More about them next.

src

Inside src are simple and singleton - our workspaces. They have the same structure, including tests and assembly folders. The difference between them is style they’re written in.

simple

We say that an AssemblyScript contract is written in the “simple style” when the index.ts file (the contract entry point) includes a series of exported functions.

In this case, all exported functions become public contract methods.

// return the string 'hello world'
export function helloWorld(): string {}

// read the given key from account (contract) storage
export function read(key: string): string {}

// write the given value at the given key to account (contract) storage
export function write(key: string, value: string): string {}

// private helper method used by read() and write() above
private storageReport(): string {}

singleton

We say that an AssemblyScript contract is written in the “singleton style” when the index.ts file (the contract entry point) has a single exported class (the name of the class doesn’t matter) that is decorated with @nearBindgen.

In this case, all methods on the class become public contract methods unless marked private. Also, all instance variables are stored as a serialized instance of the class under a special storage key named STATE. AssemblyScript uses JSON for storage serialization.

@nearBindgen
export class Contract {

  // return the string 'hello world'
  helloWorld(): string {}

  // read the given key from account (contract) storage
  read(key: string): string {}

  // write the given value at the given key to account (contract) storage
  @mutateState()
  write(key: string, value: string): string {}

  // private helper method used by read() and write() above
  private storageReport(): string {}
}

Warning: be careful when creating a new workspace

Don’t forget to add it’s location to asconfig.json Your workspace must have assembly folder and index.ts file!

scripts

Those are command line scenarios that recreate some certain behaviour using the contracts in this project. We’re using them in the next section.

Note: Use OS of your preference, however, Windows users should take in consideration that you should launch your scripts not via PowerShell or cmd, use Git Bash instead.

Warning: Mac with M1 chip has compatibility issues with WASM.

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